Ensenyaments Esportius · Ins CAR

RECURSOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN - PROJECTE FINAL DE GRAU

by
David Ribera-Nebot
2014
 

Formació de Tècnics Esportius :: Iniciació i Alt Rendiment Esportiu

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*) Procesos Básicos en el Desarrollo de una Investigación

1. Realizar el proyecto o propuesta de investigación.
Es un plan detallado donde se plantea el problema a investigar, así como su alcance y limitaciones; se analiza la bibliografía relativa para situar lo diferencial que aporta el problema planteado en un ámbito de la ciencia; y se concretan todos los procesos metodológicos a desarrollar para dar solución a este problema de investigación.

2. Desarrollar y aplicar todo lo planeado en el proyecto o propuesta de investigación a la práctica, realizando sus correspondientes análisis, reflexiones y conclusiones.

3. Redactar la memoria o informe de investigación.
Es la memoria de todo el trabajo desarrollado donde destaca el capítulo de las conclusiones específicas del problema de investigación planteado. Es recomendable y da rigor la inclusión de apartados sobre las aplicaciones prácticas y las futuras líneas de investigación.

Así, debería existir un primer documento:"el proyecto o propuesta de investigación";
y un documento final:"la memoria o informe de investigación".

 

*) ››› Outline para la Propuesta o Proyecto de Investigación - Guidelines for Research Proposals

 

*) ››› Traducción y Resumen de "Thesis Outline Guide" · Kinesiology Department IU · June 1991 - Guía para la Memoria/Informe Final

DESGLOSADO:
*) ›› Traducción y Resumen de "Thesis Outline Guide" · Kinesiology Department IU · Portada-Presentación-Índice
*) ›› Traducción y Resumen de "Thesis Outline Guide" · Kinesiology Department IU · Contenido

 

*) ›› Errores Comunes en Informes/Memorias de Investigación · Extraído de "Thesis Outline Guide" IU 1991

 

*) ›› Propuesta de AutoEvaluación de los Contenidos del Proyecto de Grado

 

*) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertacion (a)

*
) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación (b)

*) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación (c)

*) Ejemplo de Portada del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación (d)

 

*) Ejemplo de Tabla de Contenidos en Investigación Experimental y "Survey" de la Memoria del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación

*) Consideraciones de la Tabla de Contenidos en Investigación Histórica de la Memoria del Proyecto, Tesis o Disertación

*) Ejemplo de Tabla de Contenidos de una Tesis Rusa típica del ámbito del Movimiento

 

*) Ejemplos de Abstracts y Posters

Ejemplo 1 - Abstract · Ejemplo 1 - Poster
Ejemplo 2 - Abstract · Ejemplo 2 - Poster
Ejemplo 3 - Abstract · Ejemplo 3 - Poster
Ejemplo 4 - Abstract · Ejemplo 4 - Poster
Ejemplo 6 - Abstract · Ejemplo 6 - Poster
Ejemplo 7 - Abstract · Ejemplo 7 - Poster
Ejemplo 8 - Abstract · Ejemplo 8 - Poster
 

 

*) Links a algunos recursos de investigación:

Universia - Red de Universidades
Institutos Universitarios, Recursos, Bases de Datos, Convocatorias y Planes de Investigación, Tesis, Redacción Científica,
Servicios Universitarios, Premios, Otras Instituciones y Centros.

PubMed
PubMed comprises more than 20 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

ACSM
American College of Sports Medicine

ECSS
European College of Sport Science

European Educational Research Association
EERA was founded to encourage collaboration amongst educational researchers in Europe.

ERIC - Education Resources Information Center
ERIC - is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education.

Google Académico
Buscador google de bibliografia científica y acadèmica.

Free Full PDF
Over 80 million of free scientific articles, patents, theses and posters in PDF

CRAI de la UB
Centre de Recursos per l'Aprenentatge i la Investigació de la Universitat de Barcelona

 

 

*) Unos libros para las consultas generales:

FUNDAMENTOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN

Best J.W. (1982). Como Investigar en Educación (9a Edición). Madrid: Ediciones Morata S.A. Traducción del original "Research in Education" (Prentice Hall Inc., 1ª Edición: 1961).

Thomas, J.R. & Nelson, J.K. (1990). Research Methods in Physical Activity (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Schumacher, S. & McMillan, J.H. (1993). Research in Education: A Conceptual Introduction (3rd ed.). New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.

FUNDAMENTOS DE ESTADÍSTICA APLICADA

Pagano, R.R. (1994). Understanding Statistics in the Behavioral Sciences (4th ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.

FUNDAMENTOS DE EDICIÓN

American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Manual, 6th Edition. Washington: APA.

 

 

Scientific writing in English with an emphasis for a successful abstract submission, primarily targeting non-native speakers by Dr. Hilary Glasman-Deal (Imperial College in London, United Kingdom):

Presentation

Vocabulary - Introduction

Vocabulary - Results

Vocabulary - Discussion

Oral Presentation

Scientific Poster

 

Interuniversity Style Guide for Writing Institutional Texts in English

*) Resúmenes en inglés basados en apuntes de investigación del Kinesiology Department - HPER
    (Indiana University, Bloomington · 1994-1996):

 

¡¡ Puedes utilizar el traductor automático de Google para leer estos contenidos en cualquier idioma !!

 

- Sources of Knowledge

- Research Designs

- Research Reports

- Research Problems

- Literature Review

- Designing Quantitative Research

- Descriptive Statistics

- Data Collection Techniques

- Nonexperimental Research Designs

- Experimental and Single-Subject Designs

- Statistics

- Designing Qualitative Research

- Ethnographic Research

- Analytical Research

- Qualitative Data Analysis

- Evaluation Research

- Policy Analysis

- Guidelines for Research Proposals

 


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SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE

- Beliefs

- Tradition

- Personal

- Experience

- Logic

- Intuition

 

- RESEARCH

§         Process for developing knowledge:

            Identify Problem

            Conduct Empirical Studies

            Replicate Studies

            Synthesize Research

            Adoption and Evaluation

§         Process

-Select problem

-Review literature

-Select specific hypothesis

-Collect data

-Analyze data

-Interpret findings

-State conclusions

§         Characteristics

-Objective

-Precise

-Verifiable

-Explanatory

-Empirical

-Logical

-Probabilistic

§         Limitations

-Human subjects

-Public institutions

-Complexity of research problem

-Methodological dificulties

§         Functions of Basic Research

-Concerned with knowing, explaining, and predicting natural and social phenomena

-Starts with theory, principle or generalization

-Tests theories

§         Functions of Applied Research

-Conducted in the field

-Deals with practical problems

§         Functions of Evaluation Research

-Assesses merit and worth of particular practices

 

 


RESEARCH DESIGNS

QUANTITATIVE

  • Experimental

Researcher manipulates independent variable to investigate cause-and-effect relationship between independent and dependent variable.

-True experimental

-Quasi-experimental

-Single-subject

  • Nonexperimental

Researcher describes things that have occurred, examines relationships without suggesting causation, or explores causal relationships among variables that cannot be manipulated.

-Descriptive

-Correlational

-Survey

-Expost facto

QUALITATIVE

  • Ethnographic Analytical

Researcher describes behaviors as they occur in the natural envionment.

-Concept

-Historical

-Legal

 

Data Collection Techniques

  • Quantitative Designs

Use numbers to describe or measure the results.

-Structured observations

-Standardized interviews

-Tests

-Questionnaires

-Unobtrusive measures

  • Qualitative Designs

Use words to collect the data.

-Ethnographic observations and interviews

-Documents

 


RESEARCH REPORTS

QUANTITATIVE

  • Standard format with:

Abstract

Introduction

Statement of Research Problem

Review of Literature

Statement of Research Hypotheses/Questions

Methodology

Results

Discussion, Implications, Conclusions

References

QUALITATIVE

  • Diverse format with:

Introduction

Methodology

Findings and Interpretation

Conclusions

 


RESEARCH PROBLEMS

SOURCES

-Casual observation

-Deductions from theory

-Related literature

-Current social and political issues

-Practical situations

-Personal experience

SIGNIFICANCE

Determined by if they:

-Provide knowledge

-Test theories

-Increase generalizability

-Extend empirical understandings

-Advance methodology

-Focus of current issue

-Evaluate specific practice or policy

-Are exploratory studies

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Specifies the focus, educational, context, importance, and the frameworks for reporting the findings.

  • In Quantitative Research

-Use deductive logic

-Identify population, variables, and logic of the problem

-Write statement clearly and concisely

-Write statement as research purpose, questions, or hypotheses before data is collected

    • Research Purpose

-Suggests the design of the study

    • Research Questions

-Descriptive

-Relationship

-Difference

    • Research Hypotheses

Should:

-State expected relationship or difference between two or more variables

-Be testable

-Offer tentative explanation

  • In Qualitative Research

-Use inductive logic

-State problem initially in planning for the study

-Write statement as research purpose or questions

-Reformulate problem statement during data collection

    • Research Questions

-Ethnographic

-Historical

-Legal

  • Assessment of

Evaluate in terms of specific criteria related to:

-General research problem

-Significance of the problem

-Research questions and hypotheses in quantitative research

-Research questions in qualitative research

 


  LITERATURE REVIEW

FUNCTIONS

-Defines and limits problem

-Places study in perspective

-Avoids replication

-Selects methods and measures

-Relates findings to previous research

Suggests further research

STANDARDS OF ADEQUACY

Judged adequate by 3 criteria:

-Selection of literature

-Criticism of literature

-Summary and Interpretation

META-ANALYSIS

Uses statistical techniques to synthesize results of prior independently conducted studies

Steps:

-Formulate research synthesis problem

-Collect data

-Evaluate data

-Analyze and interpret data

-Public presentation

STEPS IN LITERATURE REVIEW

  1. Analyze problem statement
  2. Search and read secondary literature
  3. Select appropriate index
  4. Identify descriptors
  5. Conduct manual/computer search
    1. analyze research problem
    2. determine type of search
    3. select database
    4. select descriptors
    5. conduct literature search
    6. analyze printout
  6. Read relevant primary literature
  7. Organize notes
    1. abstract articles on index cards
    2. organize literature by developing appropriate classification system
  8. Write review

Quantitative Research:

-Organize by sections (introduction, critical review, summary)

-Organize criticism by dates, variables/treatments, research designs and methods, general to closely related literature, or combination of these

Qualitative Research:

-Conduct preliminary literature review

-Continually review literature during data collection and analysis

-Alternative presentations of literature (a) separate discussions (b) integration within text

 


  DESIGNING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH DESIGN

To provide a credible answer to a research question.

PROCEDURES

Must be presented in detail and specify:

-when, where, and how data will be collected

-experimental treatment (where applicable)

-procedures used to control bias

DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

Questionnaires

Standardized Interviews

Tests

Standardized Observations

Inventories

Rating Scales

Unobtrusive Measures

            Basic Principles Common to All Methods:

§         Test Validity

Inferences made on the basis of scores from an instrument must be appropriate, meaningful, and useful

§         Test Reliability

Refers to consistency of measurement

VALIDITY OF DESIGN

§         Internal Validity

Refers to extent of control over extraneous variables

§         External Validity

Refers to generalizability of results

Two general categories:

      Populations external validity

      Ecological external validity

SUBJECTS

Subjects are:

  1. individuals who participate in the study
  2. referred as the sample
  3. selected from a larger group called the population

§         Sample Size

Determined by the type of research, research hypotheses, financial constraints, importance of results, number of variables studied, methods of data collection, and degree of accuracy needed.

§         Methods of Selection

    1. Nonprobability sampling

-using available subjects

    1. Probability sampling

-using following procedures to select unbiased sample:

-simple random sampling

-systematic sampling

-stratified random sampling

-cluster sampling

 


DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Indices that summarize or characterize a larger number of observations

APPROPRIATE STATISTICS determined by:

  • Purpose of the research
  • Measurement Scale
    • Nominal._ numbers represent categories
    • Ordinal._ numbers indicate rank
    • Interval._ numbers represent equal intervals
    • Ratio._ numbers represent equal units from zero

TYPES

  • Measures of Central Tendency

Each provides a numerical index of the typical score in the distribution

Mean._ average of all scores

Median._ point that divides distribution in half

Mode._ score that occurs most frequently

Relationship among mean, median, and mode:

a)       Normal distribution: all indicates the same

b)       Skewed distributions: mean lies closest to tail, mode lies furthest from tail, median lies between mean and mode

  • Measures of Variability

Indicates spread of scores from the mean of the distribution

Range._ difference between highest and lowest score

Standard deviation._ indicates average variability of scores

Standard scores._ have constant normative or relative meaning

  • Measures of Relationship

Indicates the relationship between variables

Scatter plot – graphic representation – correlation coefficient - numerical

  • Graphic Portrayal: provides pictorial representation of group data
    • Frequency distribution._ indicates number of times each score was attained
    • Histogram & Frequency Polygon._ pictorial display of frequency data

 


DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURES USED OT JUDGE OVERALL
QUALITY AND APPROPRIATENESS

  • Validity

Refers to the extent to which inferences made from the results are appropriate and meaningful

Four Components:

-Content-related

-Concurrent criterion-related

-Predictive criterion-related

-Construct related

  • Reliability

Refers to the consistency of measurement

Types:

-Stability

-Equivalence

-Equivalence and Stability

-Internal Consistency

TESTS

  • Cognitive

1.       Standardized._ provide uniform procedures

2.       Norm-referenced._ compare individuals to norming group

3.       Aptitude._ predict future performance

4.       Achievement._ measure prior learning

5.       Performance assessment._ measures proficiency by observing student perform skills of interest

  • Noncognitive

Includes inventories that measure traits such as interests, attitudes, self-concept, values, personality, and beliefs

QUESTIONNAIRES

Are economical, can assure anonymity, and permit use of standardized questions

  • Steps:

-justify use

-define objectives

-write questions and statements

 (items can be scaled, ranked, or have open or closed form)

-decide on general and item format

-pretest questionnaire

INTERVIEW SCHEDULES

Oral questions and answers

  • Steps:

-construct interviews schedule

 (questions may be structured, semi-structured, or unstructured

-pretest questions

-remove or rephrase leading questions

-consider characteristics of interviewer that may influence responses

-decide on how responses will be recorded

UNOBTRUSIVE MEASURES

Provide data that are uninfluenced by an awareness of the subjects that they are the participants

  • Major types:

-physical traces

-archives

-simple observation

-contrived observation

OBSERVATION SCHEDULES

Recording of naturally occurring behavior

  • Steps:

-justify observational method

-define precisely what will be observed

-decide how behaviors will be recorded

 (duration, frequency count, interval recording, continuous observation, time sampling)

-train observers

 


NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Concerns with current state of something.

  • Developmental Studies:

Investigate changes of subjects over time.

Can be longitudinal or cross-sectional.

CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH

  • Simple Relationship Studies:

Correlation coefficient calculated from scores on two variables.

  • Predictive Studies:

-The criterion variable is predicted by a prior behavior.

-Several predictor variables are used to make a more accurate prediction.

  • Interpreting Correlational Research:

-Correlation does not infer causation.

-Spurious correlations over- o under- represent actual relationship between two variables.

-Correlation coefficient expresses degree of covariance between variables.

-Coefficient of determination expresses common variance between variables.

SURVEY RESEARCH

Uses questionnaires or interviews to describe the characteristics of populations.

  • Steps:

1.       Define purpose and objectives

2.       Select resources and target population

3.       Choose and develop techniques for gathering data

4.       Determine method of sampling

5.       Write letter of transmittal

6.       Send follow-up letters to subjects who have not responded

7.       Check nonrespondents

EX POST FACTO RESEARCH

Investigates whether pre-existing conditions caused differences in groups.

  • Steps:

1.       Formulate research problem

2.       Identify plausible rival hypotheses

3.       Find and select groups that will be compared

4.       Collect and analyze data including data on factors that may constitute rival hypotheses

 


EXPERIMENTAL AND SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGNS

CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

            -Statistical equivalence of subjects in different groups.

            -Two groups or conditions that can be compared are needed.

            -Manipulation of independent variable.

            -Measurement of dependent variables in numerical terms.

            -Use of inferential statistics.

            -Control of extraneous variables.

SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGNS

  • a) A-B: target behavior observed during baseline (A) and treatment (B) phases to determine effect of treatment.
  • b) A-B-A: same as (a) with addition of second baseline (A) phase.
  • c) Multiple-baseline: treatment replicated across two or more students, behaviors, or settings.

PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

  • a. One-group posttest only: effect of treatment given to one group is observed.
  • b. One-group pretest-posttest: group is observed before and after implementing treatment.
  • c. Posttest only with nonequivalent groups: similar to (a) with one addition. A control group receives no treatment or a different one.

TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental and control groups.

§         a. Pretest-posttest control group: experimental group(s) receive(s) pretest, treatment, posttest; control group receives pre-and posttest.

§         b. Posttest only control group: experimental group(s) receive(s) treatment, posttest; control group receives posttest only.

QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

No random assignment of subjects

§         a. Nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group: experimental group receives pretest, treatment, posttest; control group receives pre- and posttest.

§         b. Time-series: one group of subjects is measured repeatedly before and after treatment.

THREATS TO VALIDITY

  • Threats to Internal Validity

May include: history, selection, statistical regression, pretesting, instrumentation, subject attrition, maturation, diffusion of treatment, experimenter effects, treatment replications, subject effects, statistical conclusion.

  • Threats to External Validity

May include two general categories: population and ecological.

 


STATISTICS

The researcher employs an inferential statistics test to determine the probability that the null is untrue. Level of significance indicates the chance that it is wrong to reject the null.

-Inferential Statistics: Are used to make inferences about populations based on data from samples.

-Probability: A scientific way of stating the degree of confidence in predicting something.

-Null Hypothesis: A statement of no relationship between two or more variables.

-Level of Confidence: Expressed as a decimal e.g., .01, .05.

STATISTICAL TESTS

NONPARAMETRIC

Statistical procedures used when the assumptions necessary to use parametric tests are violated.

  • Chi-Square: Used with nominal data to test relationships between frequency of observations in categories of independent variables.
  • Median Test
  • Mann-Whitney U Test
  • Sign Test
  • Wilconxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test
  • Kruskal-Wallis
  • One-way Anova of ranks

PARAMETRIC

Statistical test that assume normality in the:

-population

-homogeneity of variance

-interval or ratio scale data

  • T-Test

Used to compare means of 2 groups to determine the probability that the corresponding population means are different.

    • Independent Samples T-Test

Used to compare means of 2 groups that have no relationship to each other.

    • Dependent Samples T-Test

Used to compare means of 2 groups in which subjects are paired or matched in some way.

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    • One-way ANOVA: used to compare 2 or more sample means on one independent variable.
    • Factorial ANOVA: used to compare 2 or more sample means on 2 or more independent variables.

Two-way or three-way ANOVA denotes the exact number of independent variables.

  • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Two major purposes:

1.       To adjust initial group differences statistically on one or more variables that are related to the dependent variable but uncontrolled.

2.       To increase the likelihood of finding a significant difference between group means.

  • Multivariate Analyses

A family of statistics used when there are more than one independent variable, more than one dependent variable or both.

  • Post Hoc Comparisons

Statistical tests (e.g., Fisher’s LSD. Tukeys HSD, Scheffe’s Test) that are used with pairs of means.

            Usually conducted after a test of all means together.

 


DESIGNING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

ETHICS

Ethical principles are similar to those of quantitative research.

PURPOSEFUL SAMPLING STRATEGIES

  • Site selection
  • Comprehensive sampling
  • Maximum variation sampling
  • Network sampling
  • Sampling by case type

PHASE OF DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES

1.       Planning

2.       Beginning data collection

3.       Basic data collection

4.       Closing data collection

5.       Completion

CASE STUDY DESIGN

Researcher selects one phenomenon to understand in depth

  • Purposes:
    • To develop concept or model
    • To describe and analyze a situation, event, or process
    • To evaluate a program
    • To identify policy issues
    • To contribute to large scale research projects
    • Used as a precursor to quantitative research

INTERNAL VALIDITY

  • Threats include:
    • history
    • maturation
    • observer / researcher effects
    • selection
    • attrition
    • alternative explanations
  • Strategies to Enhance Internal Validity
    • lengthy data collection period
    • participants language
    • field research
    • disciplined subjectivity

EXTERNAL VALIDITY

  • Threats are effects which limit comparability and translatability and include:
    • selection
    • setting
    • history
    • theoretical

RELIABILITY

  • In Design: Reliability is enhanced by making explicit 6 aspects:
    • researcher role
    • informant selection
    • social context
    • data collection and analyses strategies
    • analytical premises
  • In Data Collection: Strategies used to reduce threats to reliability:
    • verbatim accounts
    • low inference descriptors
    • multiple researchers
    • mechanically recorded data
    • participant researcher
    • member checking
    • participant review
    • negative cases

 


ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

FORESHADOWED PROBLEMS

  • Anticipated research problems which will be reformulated during data collection
  • Reflect naturalistic discovery-orientation, and the initial conceptual framwork
  • Indicate focus of data collection strategies

ENTRY INTO THE FIELD

Involves the following

1.       Site selection

2.       Mapping the field: social, spacial and temporal maps

3.       Selection of interviewers

4.       Choosing the research role

a.       observer-participant

b.       participant-observer

c.       interviewer

DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES

  • PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
    • On-site observation: researcher is present in the field or site for an extensive time.
    • Prolonged Data Collection: data is collected until naturalistic event ends or is no longer relevant.
    • Obtaining people’s perceptions of reality expressed in their actions as feelings, thoughts, and beliefs.
    • Corroborating field observations.
    • Observing and recording phenomena salient to the foreshadowed problems. Use of field notes and summary observations.
  • INTERVIEWING
    • Selecting type of interview
      • informal conversational
      • interview guide approach
      • standardized open-ended
      • key-informant
      • career and life history
    • Determining content of questions, writing quality questions, and deciding their sequence
    • Taking into account factors that influence an interview session-duration, number of interviews, settings, identity of the individuals, and informant style.
    • Deciding how responses will be recorded-handwritten, or tape recorded, or both.
    • Typing handwritten records, or transcribing tapes.
  • DOCUMENT AND ARTIFACT COLLECTION
    • Selecting type of document or artifact
      • personal documents
      • official documents
      • objects
      • erosion measures
    • Analyzing and interpreting documents and artifact collection

 


ANALYTICAL RESEARCH

CHARACTERISTICS

1.       Topics of analysis: historical, legal, policy

2.       Types of sources: documents, oral testimonies, and relics

3.       Search for facts: requires locating primary and secondary sources

4.       Analytical generalizations and explanations: inductive logic applied to generalizations to suggest causal explanations

5.       Kinds of analysis: conceptual, interpretative, comparative, and universal analyses, edition, descriptive narration.

USES OF

1.       Provides knowledge and explanation to the past

2.       Clarifies present legal and policy discussions

3.       Creates a sense of common purpose about education in the society

TYPES OF ANALYTICAL RESEARCH

  • Educational Concepts

Focuses on the meaning of a concept (e.g., education, literacy, knowledge) by describing the generic meaning, the essential meanings, and the appropriate usage of the concept.

Researcher uses 3 types of analysis:

-generic

-differential

-conditions

  • Educational Historical and Policy Events

Focuses on biographies, movements, institutions, practices, analysis and distribution of power, policy-making processes, and policy content changes.

Researcher:

1.       Identifies topic and develops problem statement.

2.       Locates primary and secondary sources in documents and oral testimonies.

3.       Looks at the relationship between facts and interprets them as generalizations. Synthesizes generalizations and provides causal explanations or conclusions.

  • Educational Case Law

Focuses on legal issues to discover what is the law in specific situations

Researcher:

1.       Selects a problem in terms of party/parties subject matter or property involved, nature of claim, and object or remedy sought.

2.       Locates primary sources (federal, state, and local statutes, and court decisions), and secondary sources (e.g., legal periodicals, yearbooks, casebooks and others).

3.       Uses the case study design to analyze statutes and court decisions, synthesize primary and secondary sources, and to state a definitive position on a legal issue.

 


QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

An inductive process of organizing data into categories and identifying patterns (relationships) among categories. Data analysis entails several cyclical phases.

§         Analysis that occurs during data collection:

  1. Discovery Analysis:

Strategies include:

-writing observer comments and summaries

-playing with ideas

-exploring the literature

-using metaphors and analogies

  1. Interim Analysis:

Assists in making data collection decisions and identifying emerging topics and recurring meanings.

CODING TOPICS AND CATEGORIES

Typically occurs after data collection.

Developing an organizing system to divide data into segments.

§         Steps:

1.       Get a sense of the whole

2.       Generate topics from the data

3.       Compare duplication of topics

4.       Try out provisional classification system

5.       Refining organizing system

Developing topics into discrete categories.

§         Predetermined categories: derived from research problem, interview guide, literature, and researcher’s prior knowledge.

§         Emic categories: represent insider’s view i.e. terms, actions, and explanations that are distinctive to the settings or people.

§         Etic categories: represent outsider’s views i.e. researcher’s concepts and scientific explanations.

PATTERNS

Finding relationships among categories.

Techniques for pattern-seeking:

§         gauging data trustworthiness

§         using triangulation

§         evaluating discrepant or negative evidence

§         ordering categories for patterns

§         sorting categories for patterns

§         constructing integrative diagrams

§         doing logical cross-analyses

A pattern becomes an explanation only when alternative patterns do not offer reasonable explanations central to the research problem.

PRESENTATION OF QUALITATIVE RESULTS

Qualitative studies:

§         Present context and quotations of participant language as data.

§         Are written in a variety of formats; detailed reporting, descriptive-analytical interpretations, and abstract theoretical discussions.

DATA MANAGEMENT

§         Develop data filing system.

§         Manage data manually (cut-and-file, and file-card techniques), or using the computer (word processing, or text analysis programs).

 


EVALUATION RESEARCH

PURPOSES OF EVALUATION

  • Formative: evaluation designed and used to improve a practice in the early stages of development.
  • Summative: evaluation designed to determine the merit, worth, or both of a developed practice, and to make recommendations regarding its use.

EVALUATION APPROACHES

  • Objectives-oriented: determines degree to which objectives of a practice are attained by a target group.
  • Decision-oriented: supplies information for needs assessment, program planning, program implementation or outcomes.
  • Naturalistic and participant-oriented: uses multimethods to provide an understanding of the divergent values of a practice from the participants’ perspectives.

CRITERIA USED TO JUDGE QUALITY

  • Utility: does the evaluation serve the needs of a given audience?
  • Feasibility: is the evaluation realistic, frugal, and diplomatic?
  • Propriety: has the evaluation been conducted legally and ethically?
  • Accuracy: does the evaluation provide accurate information about the practices studied?

POTENTIAL BENEFITS

  • Systematic implementation of school improvements
  • Cost analyses of large expenditures
  • Assessment of educational effects on students
  • Appraisal of the quality of education
  • Reduction of uncertainty in innovative practices
  • Legitimization of decisions
  • Enlightenment of influentials in decision and policy arenas to better anticipate program and policy issues

LIMITATIONS

  • Failure of studies to improve educational practices and educational policy formulation.
  • Failure to appreciate that research is only one of many influences on educational policies, practices, and decisions.

 


POLICY ANALYSIS

PERSPECTIVE

  • Central concept is choice
  • Uses two approaches:
    • Macro-based on economic and system models
    • Micro-incremental activist, field oriented, and eclectic

CHARACTERISTICS

  • Multidimensional in focus
  • Uses an empirico-inductive research orientation
  • Incorporates past and future
  • Responds to study users
  • Incorporates values

METHODS

  • Focused synthesis
  • Secondary analysis
  • Field experiments
  • Qualitative interviews
  • Surveys
  • Case studies

TYPES OF

  • Cost analysis:
    • cost benefit
    • cost effectiveness
    • cost utility
    • cost feasibility
  • Indicator systems. Functions of:
    • provides information about the operation of a program
    • determines success of a program
    • suggest areas of further study
    • accountability
  • Case Studies
    • multisite studies
    • critical ethnography
    • eclectic case studies

POTENTIAL BENEFITS

  • Systematic implementation of school improvements
  • Cost analyses of large expenditures
  • Assessment of educational effects on students
  • Appraisal of the quality of education
  • Reduction of uncertainty in innovative practices
  • Legitimization of decisions
  • Enlightenment of influentials in decision and policy arenas to better anticipate program and policy issues

LIMITATIONS

  • Failure of studies to improve educational practices and educational policy formulation.
  • Failure to appreciate that research is only one of many influences on educational policies, practices, and decisions.

 


GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH PROPOSALS

FORMS OF RESEARCH COMMUNICATION

  • Research proposal
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Journal article
  • Evaluation and technical report
  • Paper presentations

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSALS

I.                     Introduction

a.      General statement of the problem

b.      Review of the literature

c.      Specific research question and/or hypotheses

d.      Significance of the proposed study

II.                   Design and Methodology

a.      Subjects

b.      Instrumentation

c.      Procedures

d.      Data Analysis and Presentation

e.      Limitations of the Design

III.                  References

IV.                Appendices

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSALS

Ethnographic

I. Introduction

a.      General statement of the problem

b.      Preliminary literature review

c.      Foreshadowed Problems

d.      Significance of the proposed study

II. Design and Methodology

a.      Site or social network selection

b.      Research role

c.      Purpose sampling strategies

III. References or Bibliography

IV. Appendices

Historical and Legal

I. Introduction

a.      General statement of the problem

b.      Preliminary literature review

c.      Specific research historical questions or legal issues

d.      Significance of the proposed study

II. Design and Methodology

a.      Case study design

b.      Sources: search, selection and criticism

c.      Inductive data analysis

d.      Limitations of design

III. References or Bibliography

IV. Appendices

COMMON WEAKNESSES

  • Problem is trivial and not delimited.
  • Objectives of the study are too general.
  • Methodology is lacking in detail appropriate for the study.

 


 

 

 

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